Beyond Vision: An Overview of Regenerative Medicine and Its Current Applications in Ophthalmological Care
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 Cells. 2024 Jan 17;13(2):179. doi: 10.3390/cells13020179. PMID: 38247870; PMCID: PMC10814238.

Beyond Vision: An Overview of Regenerative Medicine and Its Current Applications in Ophthalmological Care

Authors: Francisco J Santa Cruz-Pavlovich 1Andres J Bolaños-Chang 1Ximena I Del Rio-Murillo 1Guillermo A Aranda-Preciado 2Esmeralda M Razura-Ruiz 1Arturo Santos 1Jose Navarro-Partida 1


  1. Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Monterrey 64849, Mexico.
  2. Instituto de Oftalmologia Guillermo Avalos Urzua, Guadalajara 44260, Mexico.


Regenerative medicine (RM) has emerged as a promising and revolutionary solution to address a range of unmet needs in healthcare, including ophthalmology. Moreover, RM takes advantage of the body’s innate ability to repair and replace pathologically affected tissues. On the other hand, despite its immense promise, RM faces challenges such as ethical concerns, host-related immune responses, and the need for additional scientific validation, among others. The primary aim of this review is to present a high-level overview of current strategies in the domain of RM (cell therapy, exosomes, scaffolds, in vivo reprogramming, organoids, and interspecies chimerism), centering around the field of ophthalmology. A search conducted on unveiled a total of at least 209 interventional trials related to RM within the ophthalmological field. Among these trials, there were numerous early-phase studies, including phase I, I/II, II, II/III, and III trials. Many of these studies demonstrate potential in addressing previously challenging and degenerative eye conditions, spanning from posterior segment pathologies like Age-related Macular Degeneration and Retinitis Pigmentosa to anterior structure diseases such as Dry Eye Disease and Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency. Notably, these therapeutic approaches offer tailored solutions specific to the underlying causes of each pathology, thus allowing for the hopeful possibility of bringing forth a treatment for ocular diseases that previously seemed incurable and significantly enhancing patients’ quality of life. As advancements in research and technology continue to unfold, future objectives should focus on ensuring the safety and prolonged viability of transplanted cells, devising efficient delivery techniques, etc.

Keywords: clinical trials; exosomes; gene therapy; ophthalmology; regenerative medicine; scaffolds; stem cells.